Agroecology A sustainable solution for the Indian youth

Empowering young individuals to embrace agroecological practices not only ensures sustainable food production but also fosters rural livelihoods, environmental conservation, and socio-economic development. This article delves into the challenges faced by youth in India, explores how agroecology can offer sustainable solutions to empower them in contributing to their overall development. Current strategies are also discussed, aimed at harnessing youth potential.

India’s youth face numerous challenges including unemployment, lack of access to education, environmental degradation, and economic disparities. According to the National Youth Policy (2014), youth belonging to the age group of 15-29 constitute 27.5% of the total Indian population and contribute to 34% of India’s Gross National Income. Unemployment is a pressing issue affecting India’s youth despite their qualifications and skills. Lack of suitable employment opportunities leads to frustration and disillusionment among young individuals. Additionally, millions of youth lack access to quality education due to poverty, inadequate infrastructure, and social barriers, hindering their personal and professional growth. Moreover, environmental degradation, including climate change, deforestation, and pollution, are threatening the livelihoods of millions, particularly in rural areas where agriculture is the primary source of income. Economic disparities persist, with a large portion of the population living below the poverty line, exacerbating inequalities and limiting access to resources and opportunities, especially among marginalized communities.

The Role of agroecology
India’s agricultural sector is characterized by conventional farming practices that often degrade the environment and compromise long-term sustainability. Smallholder farmers, who make up a significant portion of the agricultural workforce, face economic challenges and limited access to resources. These challenges are exacerbated by climate change, soil degradation, and water scarcity, highlighting the urgent need for alternative approaches to farming.

Agroecology offers a holistic approach to farming that emphasizes the integration of ecological principles into agricultural systems. By promoting biodiversity, soil health, and ecosystem resilience, agroecology aims to enhance productivity while minimizing environmental impact. Key practices include crop diversification, natural pest management, and efficient water use, all of which contribute to the sustainability of farming systems. The key principles of agroecology is described in Box 1.

Box 1: Key principles of agroecology

  1. Biodiversity: Agroecology recognizes the importance of biodiversity in agricultural systems. Diverse ecosystems are more resilient to pests, diseases, and environmental stressors. Agroecological practices often involve crop diversification, agroforestry, and the preservation of natural habitats within or near agricultural areas.
  2. Soil health: Agroecology emphasizes the importance of healthy soils for sustainable agriculture. Practices such as crop rotation, cover cropping, and organic soil amendments help improve soil fertility, structure, and nutrient cycling without relying heavily on synthetic inputs.
  3. Ecological Pest Management: Rather than relying solely on chemical pesticides, agroecology encourages the use of integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. This involves a combination of techniques such as biological control, crop rotation, habitat manipulation, and the use of resistant crop varieties to manage pests while minimizing harm to beneficial organisms and the environment.
  4. Local knowledge and participatory approaches: Agroecology values local knowledge and promotes participatory decision-making processes involving farmers, researchers, and other stakeholders. By collaborating with local communities, Agro ecological initiatives can be tailored to specific social, cultural, and environmental contexts, increasing their effectiveness and acceptance.
  5. Sustainability and resilience: Agroecology aims to build resilient agricultural systems that can adapt to changing environmental conditions and support long-term food security. By minimizing reliance on external inputs and fostering ecological processes, Agro ecological farming practices contribute to the sustainability of food production systems.


In India, agroecology-based practices have been advocated for a long time across various geographies by individual practitioners. Initiatives for decades by individuals like Sripad Dabholkar’s ‘Prayog Pariwar’ (Maharashtra), natural farming methods practiced by Bhaskar Save (Gujarat), Narayan Reddy (Karnataka) and G. Nammalvar (Tamil Nadu) are well known. It is only recently that movements like Zero-Budget Natural Farming (ZBNF) have emerged as a form of the large-scale mobilization of farming communities.

Agroecology serves as a solution
The youth constitute a significant demographic segment in India and their involvement in agriculture is crucial for several reasons:
1. Innovation and adaptation: Young farmers bring fresh perspectives, creativity, and innovative solutions to agricultural challenges. Their ability to adapt to new technologies and practices is essential for the sector’s resilience in the face of climate change and other threats.
2. Skill development: Agroecology emphasizes the importance of traditional knowledge combined with modern agricultural techniques. By providing training and capacity-building programs in agro ecological practices, youth can acquire valuable skills that enable them to become successful farmers and entrepreneurs.
3. Sustainability: Agroecology promotes sustainable farming practices that prioritize environmental conservation, biodiversity, and natural resource management. Engaging youth in agroecological approaches ensures the continuity of these practices for future generations.
4. Economic empowerment: Agriculture remains a primary source of livelihood for millions of Indians, especially in rural areas. By involving youth in agroecology, we can create opportunities for economic empowerment, entrepreneurship and rural development.
5. Food security: With a growing population and changing dietary preferences, ensuring food security is a pressing concern. Agroecological practices emphasize diversified cropping systems, organic farming, and local food production, contributing to food sovereignty and nutritional security.
6. Environmental conservation: Agroecological practices promote biodiversity conservation, soil health, and water management, mitigating the adverse effects of climate change. Youth engagement in agroecology enables them to become stewards of the environment, fostering sustainable land use and natural resource conservation.
7. Community empowerment: Agroecology fosters community-based approaches to farming, encouraging collective action and cooperation among farmers. Youth involvement in community-led initiatives promotes social cohesion empowering them to address local challenges collaboratively.
8. Entrepreneurship and market linkages: Encouraging entrepreneurship among youth in agriculture can create new opportunities for value addition, diversification, and market access. Initiatives such as Farmer Producer Organizations (FPOs) and cooperatives can enable smallholder farmers to collectively market their produce, negotiate fair prices, and access premium markets for organic products. Youth-led agribusiness ventures, such as organic food startups and eco-friendly agro-processing units, can contribute to rural employment generation and economic development.

Current strategies for youth engagement in agroecology
Youth engagement is crucial for the widespread adoption of agroecology in India. By investing in education, technology and entrepreneurship, young people can play a central role in advancing sustainable agriculture. India has recognized the importance of youth participation in agriculture and has implemented various strategies to promote their involvement in agroecology. Several initiatives demonstrate the potential for youth empowerment in this field.

Some of the key initiatives include:
1. Skill development programs: The Government of India, through schemes like the Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) and the Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana (DDU-GKY), provides skill development training to youth in agroecological practices. These programs equip them with the necessary knowledge and skills to adopt sustainable farming techniques.
2. Youth entrepreneurship programs: Initiatives such as the Atal Innovation Mission and Startup India aim to foster entrepreneurship among youth, including in the agriculture sector. These programs offer financial support, mentorship, and incubation facilities to young agripreneurs, encouraging them to develop innovative solutions for sustainable agriculture.
3. Promotion of agroecological farming: Government agencies, NGOs, and civil society organizations promote agroecological farming through training programs, demonstrations, and extension services. These initiatives raise awareness among youth about the benefits of agroecology and provide them with practical guidance for implementation.
4. Youth engagement platforms: Various platforms and networks, such as youth-led organizations, Farmer Producer Organizations (FPOs), and online forums, facilitate youth engagement in agroecology. These platforms enable knowledge sharing, collaboration, and collective action among young farmers and agri-entrepreneurs.
5. Policy support: The Government of India has introduced policy measures to support agroecological farming, including organic farming promotion schemes, sustainable agriculture missions, and agri-environmental subsidies. These policies create an enabling environment for youth to adopt and scale up agroecological practices.

Agroecology: a sustainable solution
Agroecology presents a sustainable solution to address the challenges faced by youth and empower them. Agroecology can offer holistic solutions to promote their socio-economic development.
Agroecology offers a comprehensive approach to address these challenges and empower India’s youth. By integrating ecological principles into agricultural practices, agroecology promotes sustainable farming techniques that enhance productivity while safeguarding the environment. Skill development programs in agroecological practices equip youth with the necessary knowledge and skills to become successful farmers and entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship opportunities in organic farming, value-added processing, and eco-tourism create sustainable livelihood options and contribute to rural development and the reduction of costs from external inputs can increase net income of producers.

Furthermore, agroecological practices promote biodiversity conservation, soil health, and water management, mitigating the adverse effects of climate change. Engaging youth in agroecology enables them to become stewards of the environment, fostering sustainable land use and natural resource conservation. Community-based approaches to farming encourage collective action and cooperation among farmers, promoting social cohesion and empowering youth to address local challenges collaboratively. Additionally, agroecology offers economic benefits by reducing input costs, improving crop resilience, and enhancing market access for smallholder farmers. By adopting agroecological practices, youth can build resilient farming systems that withstand environmental shocks and economic uncertainties. Overall, agroecology emerges as a sustainable solution that not only empowers youth but also contributes to food security, environmental conservation and rural development.

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations):
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Dutta, D., Prasad, C. S., & Chakraborty, A. (2023). Thinking beyond Ecology: Can Reskilling Youth Lead to Sustainable Transitions in Agri-Food Systems? Social Sciences, 12(9), 478.
Oteros-Rozas, E., Ravera, F., & García-Llorente, M., 2019, How does agroecology contribute to the transitions towards social-ecological sustainability., Sustainability, 11(16), 4372.
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Vikash Yadav
SRF ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation (IISWC)
218, Kaulagarh Road Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India -248195
Email ID:

Bankey Bihari
Principal Scientist (Agricultural Extension) ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation (IISWC) 218, Kaulagarh Road Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India -248195

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